“Deeply Ingrained Advantages”: American Media Discovers Kyûshoku


Can Japan solve America’s food identity crisis? Japan’s relatively low rates of obesity have caught the eye of the American news media, particularly in light of our own new government controls on junk food and measures intended to prevent childhood obesity. In January, The Washington Post ran the article “On Japan’s school lunch menu: A healthy meal, made from scratch” by Chico Harlan; NPR followed up article/radio segment on bento called “In Japan, Food Can Be Almost Too Cute To Eat” by Audrey Carlsen and Daniel N.M. Turner, featuring a radio interview for All Things Considered with host Audie Cornish and author Debra Samuels.

While it is true that the content and presentation of Japanese school lunches (kyûshoku, 給食) and boxed lunches (bento) are quite different from their stereotypical American counterparts, both articles oversimplified the topics. I’d like to focus on each article separately as my criticism for each deals with distinct rather than overlapping issues. First, I’d like to discuss The Washington Post piece’s failure to address some of the negative aspects of the Japanese diet, and, in a separate post, how the NPR piece misses the mark on the “cute” issue and ignores the gendered social issues behind the bento.

Kyushoku circa 2005, Osaka
Kyushoku circa 2005, Osaka. Soup curry, white bread, vegetables, milk.

Not All Kyûshoku Are Created Equal

It’s true that the Japanese school lunch system in elementary and middle schools is quite different from those in the US: each school has a nutritionist on staff; school lunches  mostly are made from scratch and mostly made on site (exceptions: bread; yogurt, some desserts if applicable); all students eat the same foods; students help distribute the food and clean up; and, though this isn’t mentioned, all students eat lunch at the same time, though where they eat (classrooms, cafeteria) varies on the school and the size of the student body.*

One thing these articles neglect is the variety in the quality of the food between schools/districts. In his article, Harlan profiles Umejima Elementary in Adachi ward, Tokyo, a school that seems to have an exceptional lunch program, even publishing its own cookbook.

Unfortunately, this seems like an exception, even when the home-cooking, made-from-scratch style of said school lunches is the norm. Another thing that’s constantly neglected in the news media is that Tokyo might as well be on another planet when it comes to how the rest of Japan lives. As much as I hate the term “the real Japan,” imagine if we wrote articles about New York City as if that were the way the rest of America lived. A wider net should have been cast for the research, both for the sake of comparison to other schools but also for regional variation.

Makiko Itoh has a great response on Just Bento about her experiences in the Japanese school system and critiques of the articles, and she is much more an expert on Japanese food than I could ever hope to be. To add my own experiences to the conversation, if you’ll indulge me: I used to live in a rural area, and the quality of meals varied greatly between the towns of the region. The district where I did school visits seemed to be an exception to the otherwise well-rated school lunches, and the town and I had very different ideas about nutritional needs. I did not participate in school lunches because of my food allergies and dietary preferences, namely my avoidance of white rice and red meat. In my district, white bread and white rice constituted the bulk of the meal; the minuscule amounts of vegetables were nearly always doused in mayonnaise (oh, Japan); the amount of fried foods was nothing short of impressive; fruit was limited to just a few slices of apple or mikan; and I swear the spaghetti sauce was ketchup-based.**

Of course, not all school lunches are so dismal. Many of my friends had nothing but praise for their nutritionists and generally liked the foods they were served, yet the menus were nowhere  near as impressive as Umejima’s seem to be. Furthermore, although the menus were published ahead of time and distributed to the students and staff, the thought of being able to check them online is new to me. Japan may be one of the most technologically advanced countries in the world, but the web design is by and large still stuck in the Netscape era. Again, Umejima (and perhaps Tokyo) proves an exception to the rule.

The Japanese Diet in Theory and in Practice

Set lunch at a restaurant in Kanazawa: lots of white rice, fish in soy sauce glaze, miso soup, vegetable okazu, tsukemono (pickles). This is really delicious, but note the amount of rice.
Set lunch at a restaurant in Kanazawa: lots of white rice, fish in soy sauce glaze, miso soup, vegetable okazu, tsukemono (pickles). This is really delicious, but note the amount of rice.

I did like that Harlan included this statement in his article:

Japanese food, contrary to the common perception, isn’t automatically healthy; it includes crispy chicken, rich bowls of salty ramen with pork belly and battered and deep-fried tempura. But, like most cuisines, it can be healthy.

However, he focuses on problem-foods and ignores the problem with portions and ratios in the Japanese diet. “Traditional” Japanese food is served with plenty of white rice, the staple food, followed by meat; although recently the amount of meat consumed is beginning to overtake the amount of rice (Yoshiike, 2012). Vegetable side dishes, which can be very healthy and delicious if not covered in mayonnaise, are generally afterthoughts at restaurants and seem to be served in very small portions in home cooking.

On top of this, Japan has a serious problem with not getting enough dietary fiber (Nakaji et al., 2002). Fortunately for the home cook, the solution is simple: eat brown rice and significantly increase the amount of vegetable side- or main dishes. Yet, in the world of school lunches, restaurants, and in the average home, the prejudice against brown rice remains. In the 1640s, the Shogunate issued edicts restricting polished rice to tribute payment, allowing the peasants who grew said rice only brown (unpolished) rice, millet, and barley for their grain consumption (Rath, 2010, p. 115).  In more contemporary terms, brown rice has the same image problem as whole-grain breads in the US over the last 50 years: they are for hippies, health-food nuts, and dieters, have a “strange texture,” and are harder to cook and find at the store (see Bobrow-Strain, 2012).*** In short, while the the kyûshoku system does offer new ideas and benefits, what is thought of as the standard Japanese diet has its failings, too.

“Foreign” Foods

Whole fish at a hotel dinner in Nagoya. This was part of a high-end meal, but serving this type of fish whole is completely normal in Japan.
Whole fish at a ryokan dinner in Nagoya. This was part of a high-end meal at classy accomodations, but serving this type of fish whole is completely normal in Japan.

Speaking of Japan’s food traditions, what article about Japan isn’t complete without a jab at Japan’s “wacky” culture, especially its “weird” food? Itoh called out The Washington Post article on this point, writing

The menus are both traditional Japanese and western or yohshoku (western-style Japanese). (The comparison chart of typical school lunch menus that accompanies the Washington Post article does show the diversity somewhat – they have “Indian style curry” as well as pasta, in addition the stereotypical rice-and-miso-soup, but it seem to emphasize the menus that have the “weird Japanese food” like squid and konnyaku (devil’s tongue, OMG!) Incidentally, the American menu on the left doesn’t look that unhealthy to me either.)

I understand that many Americans (and many Japanese, for that matter), are ignorant of the daily foodways of other cultures, but one of the passages that struck me as odd follows.

[The nutritionist has] realized, over the years, that kids will eat almost anything if you serve it to them right. They’ll eat hijiki, an earthy black seaweed, if you mix it with rice. They’ll eat small whole fish, heads and all, if they are lightly fried. Tofu is an easier bet, but just to be sure, it sometimes comes with minced pork. (Harlan, 2013.)

Children in Japan grow up eating hijiki, whole fish, and tofu. Although some children are not huge fans of fish, they grow up in a culture in which eating seaweed, fish, and tofu is completely normal. The Honkawa Data Tribune (2011)’s “Food Preferences of Children and Students” contain a decade’s worth of surveys about children’s favorite and least favorite foods published by the Japan Sports Council in regard to school lunches. The top 10 least favorites? Gôya (bitter melon), liver and other animal by-products/organs, eggplants, celery, tomato, meat fat, green peas, green pepper, umeboshi (pickled plums), and asparagus. Fish was on both sides of the charts: sushi ranked #1 and sashimi #12 of favorite meals, while aemono (vinegared fish and/or vegetables) was #2, eel #3, and boiled fish (nizakana) #6 of least favorite meals. In short, you don’t have to bribe most kids to eat tofu and fish if tofu and fish are as prominent as milk and chicken in the national diet; foods that are staples of the Japanese diet should not be treated as weird in an article about Japanese food in Japan.

As a side note, speaking of “weird food,” when I talked about American foods at cooking classes and school visits, I was informed by the children that the following foods were weird: turkey, peanut butter and jelly, and pumpkin pie. Turkeys are not raised here to the level they are in the US; savory peanut butter was a foreign concept to them since Japanese “peanut cream” is sweet and reminiscent of frosting; Japanese kabocha squash is a different consistency than orange pumpkins; and “pie” is more like a puff pastry. Incidentally, What Japan Thinks has an interesting survey of what Japanese foods foreigners might find strange here, if you want to explore some of the foods that are actually considered odd by the Japanese themselves.

A Model School Lunch

Is kyûshoku the answer to American nutritional issues? I’m inclined to say that while the execution is good, the content is imperfect. Having school facilities and staff that can produce meals made with fresh ingredients, more vegetables, fewer preservatives and additives, and that can be cooked mostly on site would be a huge step in the right direction for American school lunches. Hiring nutritionists who work with the students to create meals kids want to eat but are good for them, too, would be a boon to the system, as would be reintroducing “home ec” as a nongendered “life skills” course. However, those kind of changes require money and time, and if measures were to be put into place on a nationwide or even statewide level, the money will have to come from somewhere. Having experienced budget cuts in my own district as a young child, I always vote for school levies, but I’m not sure a school levy alone could adequately provide for these changes.

While focusing on teaching children about nutrition while providing better school lunches may help, the Japanese-style diet, with its lack of fiber and whole grains and its caloric density due to white rice and meat, is not a cure in and of itself for obesity or poor nutrition. With a few simple changes to more traditional Japanese fare and Japanized Western fare, though, it can be. So can “American” food, that great hybrid of cultures, whose standards now encompass everything from mac ‘n’ cheese to spaghetti to hummus and pita. Likewise, Japanese food is more of a hybrid than Harlan–or the Japanese, for that matter–give it credit for. I want to see a school lunch system that incorporates a nutritionist and food from scratch with the relative visibility (compared to Japan) of food allergies and restrictions in the US. I want to see more articles that more fully explore the advantages and disadvantages to other countries’ school food and how we can use their advantages to our advantage.

Also on my wishlist: stop treating tofu as weird.

Stay tuned for part two: Betty Friedan and bentos.


*For the record: I went to a large public school, and my elementary- and junior/senior high schools had several lunch periods, based on grade level in elementary and course schedule in JHS/SHS. Our high school was also closed-campus and we had 23 minutes for lunch. I bought lunch once a week in elementary but packed mine every day in high school (in the early 00’s), though it was mostly peanut-butter-and-jelly or salami sandwiches and lemonade, plus snacks since I had a 7:30 am start and a 1 pm lunch one year. Our school district served pizza, hamburgers, and fries every day with a meal-of-the-day as well (turkey and stuffing, lasagna, spaghetti); milk or chocolate milk were available. The high school also had Caesar salad (with iceberg) a la carte and bagels and cream cheese.

** At an average of 700 calories per meal, according to the daily nutritional information posted, this bulky, carb-laden diet might have been good for student athletes, those with high metabolism, and children, especially those not getting enough to eat at home (a real concern in some parts of that community), but not for me.

*** Although purchasing an appropriate amount of brown rice for one’s home may require the individual shopper to go to a co-op (JAS, etc.), health-food store, farmers’ market, or a rice store with an on-site polisher if what the local supermarket has is insufficient, these are common enough in both the city and country in Japan. Of course, brown rice is also available from online grocery delivery systems, which are very popular in Japan. For more on rice culture, particularly the generational changes and who eats brown rice and grains vs. white rice, see this 2010 poll on rice consumption on What Japan Thinks.


Bobrow-Strain, Aaron. (2012.) White Bread: A Social History of the Store-Bought Loaf. Boston: Beacon Press. Kindle edition.

Honkawa Data Tribune. (2006 [2011]). “Food Preferences of Children and Students.” 社会実情データ図書録. 児童・生徒の食べ物・料理の好き嫌い .

Itoh, Makiko. (2013.) “School lunch in Japan: is it so different?” Just Bento.

Nakaji Shigeyuki et al. (2002.) “Trends in dietary fiber intake in Japan over the last century.” European Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 41, Number 5 (2002). Accessible here.

Rath, Eric C. (2010.) Food and Fantasy in Early Modern Japan. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Yoshiike Takeshi. (2012.) “Will Meat Become Japan’s Staple Food?” The Wall Street Journal: Japan Real Time. (吉池威. 「日本人の主食は肉になる?」『日本レアルタイム ウォールストリートジャーナル』2012年8月31日.)





12 Comments Add yours

  1. illahee says:

    we get our brown rice from a local (well, he’s on kyushu and we’re on kyushu) farmer. my husband bought a polisher, so we can control how ‘white’ the rice is. right now i polish two cups at about 50% and then add a cup of brown when cooking. it’s delicious (i’m not ready for 100% brown).

    some elem school’s lunch are awesome, some are mediocre, and it’s so…..weird. i mean, a small, poor town in the middle of shimane might have the best food you ever tasted, because they buy food locally and have worked really hard to make delicious food for the kids. other schools have just plain old menus because whoever’s in charge just can’t be bothered. i still like my son’s school lunches. they might not be the best ever, but they’re not heavy on fried foods, and there are lots of veggies, and he gets as much (or as little) as he needs.

    as for me, i went to several elem schools growing up (military brat) and one had a cafeteria where the food was cooked fresh each morning, and there wasn’t a chicken nugget or pizza in the place. that was the best ever. at my high school, however, the food was pretty fatty (but delicious) but the real problem was the student run shop that sold cookies, sweetened yogurt and snacks like candy bars and chips. idiots like me would have a chocolate chip cookie and strawberry yogurt for lunch every day….sheesh!

    1. Leah says:

      When I lived in the country, I saw a lot of polishing stations for the local farmers, but I’ve never heard of a home-polisher–how cool! I’m also glad to hear your son’s school lunches are fairly healthy. I think the worst I’ve heard was the “ramen and fried bread” lunch day from one of my ALT friends.

      I can’t remember if my high school’s shop sold food (they mostly had school supplies and “spirit wear”), but we did have Gatorade machines and the cafeteria definitely sold frozen candy bars. I wonder what it’s like now?

      Thanks for commenting!

  2. kamo says:

    Very nice. Looking forward to part two. Is it usual for ES and JHS to have kitchens on site (in Japan or America, couldn’t quite tell which you were referring to there)? Most of the ones I’ve worked at seemed to get it delivered from a central depot (facility/factory/plant?) that supplied all the schools for that particular town. I’ve not taught at that many though, so maybe my experience is skewed.

    Nice to see some research to back up the complaints made against the ‘usual’ Japanese diet, which in terms of content is no better or worse than anywhere else. There does seem to be a more sensible attitude towards portion control in Japan though, which I think is the real main health benefit.

    I like how the ‘traditional’ Japanese diet is now the latest healthy eating trend; previously it was the traditional Mediterranean diet, and before that something else. The thing is, the ‘traditional’ diet of pretty much anywhere you care to mention is pretty healthy as they generally revolve around freshly prepared, seasonal, and locally produced, er, products. That’s how it became ‘traditional’ in the first place.

    And of course, fewer and fewer people eat truly ‘traditional’ diets any more. As much as anything because you need someone with the time to actually prepare these things while they’re fresh (*cough* housewives *cough*), which is something we’ve spoken about before, I think. Another one of those ‘cuts both ways’ aspects of Japanese society.

    P.S. White rice blows. It is an absolutely nothing food. It has calories. That’s it; nothing else going for it whatsoever. But I could spit on an icon of the Virgin Mary in St. Peter’s Square and provoke a less aghast reaction than on the few occasions I’ve voiced that opinion to Japanese people.

    1. Leah says:

      Thanks for the comment! In Japan, most ES have onsite kitchens, and I assume most JHS do, too, if they do school-lunch. I get the impression that most American schools have a kitchen for reheating and storing food, but what they have in terms of prep space varies a lot.

      Speaking of “traditional” diets, I remember being really interested in my AP European History textbook’s chapters on social history, especially the descriptions of the diets of the aristocracy, the poor, and the bourgeoisie around the time of the French Revolution. Specifically, that the poor had health problems from either lack of food or lack of nutrients; the aristocracy tended to have gout and other health problems stemming from eating very rich food; and the bourgeoisie were comparatively healthy because they had access to vegetables and fruit, decent grains, and middling cuts of meat–what they could afford was really the best diet. I suppose some things don’t change, do they?

      Japan is, unfortunately, a society that is easier to live in when you have a person in your household who has a flexible schedule. Going to the bank, small town grocery that closes at 8 pm, or post office when you work 9-5 (read 8-7) is really hard. I think a lot of the cultural ideas about food get lumped into this kind of work culture. With a rice-cooker or a slow cooker or a freezer and a night off for cooking, even a single salary(wo)man can make homemade, healthy food without having to do too much prep work, especially if it’s a meal you can throw in a pot and let cook overnight/during the workday. I try to make a lot of leftovers so I don’t have to cook every single day. But there’s still this unspoken (and sometimes outright) assumption that cooking meals is what wives do. It’s true that in the US, women married to men do more housework and childcare, if applicable, than their male partners, but here I feel like there’s a strong bias toward “Are you female and married? Then you must cook!” even though that’s not always the case.

      Finally, yes, never try to tell people that white rice isn’t so great. I didn’t used to eat rice much, or bread, and a lot of people seemed really shocked about that. When I found a source of brown rice and started eating a more of that, apparently that meant I was on a diet. I just really like brown rice…

  3. Lynn says:

    Thank you for your insightful response to these articles.

    I too agree that while there are lessons to be learned from Japanese kyushoku, that in itself won’t solve America’s “obesity problem.” I think the epidemic’s causes are a lot further ingrained in the habits and mindsets of Americans than what a simple change in school lunches could “fix.”

    Additionally, as you’ve pointed out, the Japanese kyushoku aren’t perfect. Although I really love eating them usually, I do agree that the calories are typically too high (at least for female adults; I’ve started only eating half the lunch) and that it’s not all healthy. Granted, it’s much better nutritionally than what I was served in American schools — namely, pizza, fried cheese sticks, chicken nuggets, and sad attempts at steamed broccoli.

    On a related note, the ignorant American in me was fascinated to learn that tofu isn’t considered a “health food,” “vegetarian food,” or “wimpy/unmanly food” in Japan. It’s “food.” And, while it is novel to me, I like that.

    And, going off of what another commenter said, most of me will be sad to not have school lunches after my job is over, but part of me will be glad to say “good-bye” to white rice, since I’ll be making the majority of my own meals. White rice tastes boring to me and apparently isn’t particularly healthy.

    1. Leah says:

      I do think that changing school lunches to be healthier and include more diverse foods (especially vegetables) might help kids branch out. One thing that I didn’t mention was that, outside of “family restaurants” (Joyful, Coco’s, etc.), there isn’t a lot in the way of kid’s menus in Japan, something which I do like. In the US, it seems like all kid’s menus are hot dogs, pizza, and chicken nuggets, and if you’re forced to eat actual “grown-up food” it’s so horrible and oppressive! (I do understand not wanting to give children very spicy foods or raw fish at a young age, but a “kid-friendly” menu with food that is cooked through and not spicy would do.) I like that if parents take a child to a restaurant in Japan, they just give the kid some of their food. (Or tamago-yaki and cucumber rolls, but that’s at least in the same style and are things I would eat anyhow.)

      I never really cooked tofu in the US. I didn’t have a lot of vegetarian friends until grad school, so I never learned until I moved here. I don’t know if you have this in Tokyo, but the katai-tofu (堅い豆腐) made in Ishikawa and some of the other prefectures here and there is delicious and really, really firm, even better than yakidofu. I don’t really get the American way of using tofu as a sub for meat, especially in sandwiches and burritos, but I like that here, as you said, tofu is an actual food that as its very own dishes. At any rate, it’s definitely improved my cooking skills!

      Thanks for reading and for the comment!

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.